Adiabatic Quantum Computation And Quantum Annealing

Adiabatic Quantum Computation and Quantum Annealing PDF
Author: Catherine C. McGeoch
Publisher: Morgan & Claypool Publishers
Category : Science
Languages : en
Pages : 93
View: 2124

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Book Description:
Adiabatic quantum computation (AQC) is an alternative to the better-known gate model of quantum computation. The two models are polynomially equivalent, but otherwise quite dissimilar: one property that distinguishes AQC from the gate model is its analog nature. Quantum annealing (QA) describes a type of heuristic search algorithm that can be implemented to run in the ``native instruction set'' of an AQC platform. D-Wave Systems Inc. manufactures {quantum annealing processor chips} that exploit quantum properties to realize QA computations in hardware. The chips form the centerpiece of a novel computing platform designed to solve NP-hard optimization problems. Starting with a 16-qubit prototype announced in 2007, the company has launched and sold increasingly larger models: the 128-qubit D-Wave One system was announced in 2010 and the 512-qubit D-Wave Two system arrived on the scene in 2013. A 1,000-qubit model is expected to be available in 2014. This monograph presents an introductory overview of this unusual and rapidly developing approach to computation. We start with a survey of basic principles of quantum computation and what is known about the AQC model and the QA algorithm paradigm. Next we review the D-Wave technology stack and discuss some challenges to building and using quantum computing systems at a commercial scale. The last chapter reviews some experimental efforts to understand the properties and capabilities of these unusual platforms. The discussion throughout is aimed at an audience of computer scientists with little background in quantum computation or in physics.


Quantum Computing And Quantum Bits In Mesoscopic Systems

Quantum Computing and Quantum Bits in Mesoscopic Systems PDF
Author: Anthony Leggett
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
Category : Science
Languages : en
Pages : 273
View: 2262

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Book Description:
Quantum information science is a new field of science and technology which requires the collaboration of researchers coming from different fields of physics, mathematics, and engineering: both theoretical and applied. Quantum Computing and Quantum Bits in Mesoscopic Systems addresses fundamental aspects of quantum physics, enhancing the connection between the quantum behavior of macroscopic systems and information theory. In addition to theoretical quantum physics, the book comprehensively explores practical implementation of quantum computing and information processing devices. On the experimental side, this book reports on recent and previous observations of quantum behavior in several physical systems, coherently coupled Bose-Einstein condensates, quantum dots, superconducting quantum interference devices, Cooper pair boxes, and electron pumps in the context of the Josephson effect. In these systems, the book discusses all required steps, from fabrication through characterization to the final basic implementation for quantum computing.


Electron Spin Resonance Esr Based Quantum Computing

Electron Spin Resonance  ESR  Based Quantum Computing PDF
Author: Takeji Takui
Publisher: Springer
Category : Technology & Engineering
Languages : en
Pages : 255
View: 6385

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Book Description:
This book addresses electron spin-qubit based quantum computing and quantum information processing with a strong focus on the background and applications to EPR/ESR technique and spectroscopy. It explores a broad spectrum of topics including quantum computing, information processing, quantum effects in electron-nuclear coupled molecular spin systems, adiabatic quantum computing, heat bath algorithmic cooling with spins, and gateway schemes of quantum control for spin networks to NMR quantum information. The organization of the book places emphasis on relevant molecular qubit spectroscopy. These revolutionary concepts have never before been included in a comprehensive volume that covers theory, physical basis, technological basis, applications, and new advances in this emerging field. Electron Spin Resonance (ESR) Based Quantum Computing, co-edited by leading and renowned researchers Takeji Takui, Graeme Hanson and Lawrence J Berliner, is an ideal resource for students and researchers in the fields of EPR/ESR, NMR and quantum computing. This book also • Explores methods of harnessing quantum effects in electron-nuclear coupled molecular spin systems • Expertly discusses applications of optimal control theory in quantum computing • Broadens the readers’ understanding of NMR quantum information processing


Quantum Computing

Quantum Computing PDF
Author: National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine
Publisher: National Academies Press
Category : Computers
Languages : en
Pages : 272
View: 5247

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Book Description:
Quantum mechanics, the subfield of physics that describes the behavior of very small (quantum) particles, provides the basis for a new paradigm of computing. First proposed in the 1980s as a way to improve computational modeling of quantum systems, the field of quantum computing has recently garnered significant attention due to progress in building small-scale devices. However, significant technical advances will be required before a large-scale, practical quantum computer can be achieved. Quantum Computing: Progress and Prospects provides an introduction to the field, including the unique characteristics and constraints of the technology, and assesses the feasibility and implications of creating a functional quantum computer capable of addressing real-world problems. This report considers hardware and software requirements, quantum algorithms, drivers of advances in quantum computing and quantum devices, benchmarks associated with relevant use cases, the time and resources required, and how to assess the probability of success.


Solving Optimization Problems Using Adiabatic Quantum Computing

Solving Optimization Problems Using Adiabatic Quantum Computing PDF
Author: Kai Liu
Publisher:
Category : Adiabatic invariants
Languages : en
Pages : 104
View: 7136

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Book Description:
The commercial D-Waves quantum annealer has given rise to plenty of interests due to the reported quantum speedup against classical annealing. In order to make use of this new technology, a problem must be formulated into a form of quadratic unconstrained binary optimization (QUBO) or Ising model. This thesis reports on case studies using a D-Wave quantum annealer to solve several optimization problems and providing results validation using classical exact approaches. In our thesis, we briefly introduce several classical techniques designed for QUBO problems and implement two exact approaches. With the proper tools, a D-Wave 2X computer consisted of 1098 active qubits is then evaluated for the Degree-Constrained Minimum Spanning Tree and the Steiner Tree problems, establishing their QUBO formulations are suitable for adiabatic quantum computers. Motivated by the remarkable performance, two more optimization problems are studied—the Bounded-Depth Steiner Tree problem and the Chromatic Sum problem. We propose a new formulation for each problem. The numbers of qubits (dimension of QUBO matrices) required by our formulations are O(|V|3) and O(|V|2) respectively, where |V| represents the number of vertices.


Quantum Computing Explained

Quantum Computing Explained PDF
Author: David McMahon
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
Category : Technology & Engineering
Languages : en
Pages : 420
View: 3826

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Book Description:
A self-contained treatment of the fundamentals of quantum computing This clear, practical book takes quantum computing out of the realm of theoretical physics and teaches the fundamentals of the field to students and professionals who have not had training in quantum computing or quantum information theory, including computer scientists, programmers, electrical engineers, mathematicians, physics students, and chemists. The author cuts through the conventions of typical jargon-laden physics books and instead presents the material through his unique "how-to" approach and friendly, conversational style. Readers will learn how to carry out calculations with explicit details and will gain a fundamental grasp of: * Quantum mechanics * Quantum computation * Teleportation * Quantum cryptography * Entanglement * Quantum algorithms * Error correction A number of worked examples are included so readers can see how quantum computing is done with their own eyes, while answers to similar end-of-chapter problems are provided for readers to check their own work as they learn to master the information. Ideal for professionals and graduate-level students alike, Quantum Computing Explained delivers the fundamentals of quantum computing readers need to be able to understand current research papers and go on to study more advanced quantum texts.


Approximability Of Optimization Problems Through Adiabatic Quantum Computation

Approximability of Optimization Problems through Adiabatic Quantum Computation PDF
Author: William Cruz-Santos
Publisher: Morgan & Claypool Publishers
Category : Science
Languages : en
Pages : 113
View: 3828

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Book Description:
The adiabatic quantum computation (AQC) is based on the adiabatic theorem to approximate solutions of the Schrödinger equation. The design of an AQC algorithm involves the construction of a Hamiltonian that describes the behavior of the quantum system. This Hamiltonian is expressed as a linear interpolation of an initial Hamiltonian whose ground state is easy to compute, and a final Hamiltonian whose ground state corresponds to the solution of a given combinatorial optimization problem. The adiabatic theorem asserts that if the time evolution of a quantum system described by a Hamiltonian is large enough, then the system remains close to its ground state. An AQC algorithm uses the adiabatic theorem to approximate the ground state of the final Hamiltonian that corresponds to the solution of the given optimization problem. In this book, we investigate the computational simulation of AQC algorithms applied to the MAX-SAT problem. A symbolic analysis of the AQC solution is given in order to understand the involved computational complexity of AQC algorithms. This approach can be extended to other combinatorial optimization problems and can be used for the classical simulation of an AQC algorithm where a Hamiltonian problem is constructed. This construction requires the computation of a sparse matrix of dimension 2n × 2n, by means of tensor products, where n is the dimension of the quantum system. Also, a general scheme to design AQC algorithms is proposed, based on a natural correspondence between optimization Boolean variables and quantum bits. Combinatorial graph problems are in correspondence with pseudo-Boolean maps that are reduced in polynomial time to quadratic maps. Finally, the relation among NP-hard problems is investigated, as well as its logical representability, and is applied to the design of AQC algorithms. It is shown that every monadic second-order logic (MSOL) expression has associated pseudo-Boolean maps that can be obtained by expanding the given expression, and also can be reduced to quadratic forms. Table of Contents: Preface / Acknowledgments / Introduction / Approximability of NP-hard Problems / Adiabatic Quantum Computing / Efficient Hamiltonian Construction / AQC for Pseudo-Boolean Optimization / A General Strategy to Solve NP-Hard Problems / Conclusions / Bibliography / Authors' Biographies


Adiabatic Quantum Computing With Qubo Formulations

Adiabatic Quantum Computing with QUBO Formulations PDF
Author: Richard Hua
Publisher:
Category : Graph theory
Languages : en
Pages : 160
View: 6729

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Book Description:
We study two types of problems in this thesis, graph covering problems including the Dominating Set and Edge Cover which are classic combinatorial problems and the Graph Isomorphism Problem with several of its variations. For each of the problems, we provide efficient quadratic unconstrained binary optimization (QUBO) formulations suitable for adiabatic quantum computers, which are viewed as a real-world enhanced model of simulated annealing. The number of qubits (dimension of QUBO matrices) required to solve the graph covering problems are O(n + n lg n) and O(m + n lg n) respectively, where n is the number of vertices and m is the number of edges. We also extend our formulations for the Minimum Vertex- Weighted Dominating Set problem and Minimum Edge-Weighted Edge Cover problem. For the Graph Isomorphism Problem, we provide two QUBO formulation through two approaches both requiring O(n2) variables. We also provide several different formulations for two extensions of the Graph Isomorphism Problems each requiring a different number of variables ranging from O(n1n2) to O((n1 + 1)n2). We also provide some experimental results using a D-Wave 2X quantum computer with 1098 active qubit-coupled processors on the problems studied here for a selection of known common graphs.


Lectures On Quantum Computing Thermodynamics And Statistical Physics

Lectures on Quantum Computing  Thermodynamics and Statistical Physics PDF
Author: Mikio Nakahara
Publisher: World Scientific
Category : Science
Languages : en
Pages : 190
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Book Description:
Quantum Annealing: From Viewpoints of Statistical Physics, Condensed Matter Physics, and Computational Physics (Shu Tanaka and Ryo Tamura); Spin Glass: A Bridge between Quantum Computation and Statistical Mechanics (Masayuki Ohzeki); Second Law-like Inequalities with Quantum Relative Entropy: An Introduction (Takahiro Sagawa).


Quantum Computing And Quantum Communications

Quantum Computing and Quantum Communications PDF
Author: Qcqs 98
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
Category : Computers
Languages : en
Pages : 480
View: 4421

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Book Description:
This book contains selected papers presented at the First NASA International Conference on Quantum Computing and Quantum Communications, QCQC'98, held in Palm Springs, California, USA in February 1998. As the record of the first large-scale meeting entirely devoted to quantum computing and communications, this book is a unique survey of the state-of-the-art in the area. The 43 carefully reviewed papers are organized in topical sections on entanglement and quantum algorithms, quantum cryptography, quantum copying and quantum information theory, quantum error correction and fault-tolerant quantum computing, and embodiments of quantum computers.